ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
The internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is a private nonprofit able organization that has responsibility for generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions, Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation and protocol identifier assignment, ensuring the secure operation and network’s stable. ICANN performed these services under US Government a contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities. The contract between National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the United States Department of Commerce and ICANN regarding IANA stewardship functions ended on October 1, 2016, transforming the Functions to the multistakeholder community.
What is Domain Name System?
The domain name system helps internet users to find their search around the internet. As every computer on the internet has unique address which is called IP address (internet protocol address). As IP addresses are the strings of numbers so it’s really hard to remember them, the Domain name system allows strings of letters (domain name) to use instead of strings of numbers. So it’s easy to type www.ICANN.com rather than "188.8.131.52,”
ICANN was founded in September 18, 1998, 18 years ago and incorporated on September 30, 1998. ICANN located at Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. Before ICANN, IANA functions registries of Internet protocol identifiers was performed by a Computer Science researcher, Jon Postal who had been involved in creation of ARPNET, firstly at University of California, Los Angeles and then at University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute.
What is ARPANET?
ARPANET was first networking that basis for the internet. ARPANET first published in 1967. ARPANET was developed by U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In 1969 the idea became a modest reality with the interconnection of four university computers. First purpose was to communicate and share computer resources between scientific users at the connected institutions. ARPANET was sending information into small packets that routed on different paths and finally reached at destination. In 1970 with the development of TCP/IP Protocols made possible to expand the size of network which now had become a network of networks.
How ICANN work
ICANN manage numbering of facilities like registries of Internet Protocol identifiers, assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries and Internet Protocol address spaces for IPv4 and IPv6 and Domain Name System Root. ICANN co-operate with other companies, Government and individuals to ensure the continued success of internet. ICANN arrange three meetings a year in which they switching each meeting location internationally. ICANN served one of these as annual General meeting, when new board members of ICANN take their seats.
ICANN is responsible for management of technical elements of DNS to ensure that all users on internet can find all valid addresses. It is done by overseeing the delegation of top level Domain names and distribution of unique identifiers used in the internet’s operations. Other issues of internet users such as internet content control, unsolicited commercial emails, and rules for financial transactions and data protection. ICANN is the best example of collaboration of different units of the internet community.
ICANN is governed by diverse Board of Directors internationally overseeing the policies of development process in there different supporting organizations. ICANN’s business is over US$ 1 billion annually in domain registration fee and saving consumers and established market competition for generic domain name (gTLD) registrations resulting in lowering domain name costs by 80%.
ICANN is using Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), which has been used to resolve more than 5000 disputes over rights to domain names. The UDRP is designed for cost effective and to be efficient.
In 2005-6 four other sponsored TLDs (cat, .jobs, .mobi, and .travel) were successfully launched. ICANN is currently developing a policy for additional gTLDs. ICANN is hosting several workshops regarding Whois, the public database of domain name registrations kin response to community concerns over privacy and accessibility.
With the new IP address numbering protocol IPv6, global network is to be a primary mission for ICANN. Participation in ICANN is open to all who have interest in global internet policy. Everyone can access ICANN by filling online ICANN forms which are available on ICANN’s website. Advisory Committees and supporting organizations have active mailing lists for participants.