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What is cloud computing?

What is cloud computing?

The computing services provided on remote location using a network and internet is known as cloud computing. Whether it’s a server or email configuration, Customer relationship Management (CRM) all are run on cloud. Basically the cloud is the delivery on-demand computing resources; you can use the services and pay for use.

Services

Cloud provider divide cloud services into different groups.

There are three main pillars of Cloud services

  • SAAS (Software As A Service)

All services including web, application and data. No  control on user end.

e.g: Gmail, DropBox

  • IAAS (Infrastructure As A Service )

User has some rights on CPU scheduling software installation and virtual machine configuration.

e.g: Admin Login, C-Panel

  • PAAS (Platform As A Service)

User can develop own Network on vendor’s hardware.

Eg: RACK SPACE

Some other Services Models are

  • DAAS (Data As A Service)

Storage, Data Management and Data Mining on large Scale. Rights Management on specific Folder / Directory.

  • NAAS (Network As A Service)

Network configuration, deployment and control.

E.g.: IP Pool Configuration.

  • HAAS (Hardware As A Service)

User has full control on critical hardware.

E.g.: Memory, CPU, and GPU.

  • DRAAS (Disaster Recovery As A Service)

Cloud provider is the responsible of remote site in case of disaster. Companies can shift their Replica site on cloud to manage DR.

  • PRAAS (Process As A Service)

On demand or need base service. Shift a specific process on cloud.

E.g.: Graphic Rendering.

But we will discuss EAAS (Everything As A Service)

Before moving forward lets discuss the difference about Cluster, Grid and Cloud.

Cluster:

               Cluster is a group of computers connected by a local area network (LAN). It has a single ownership and tightly coupled. Clusters are made up of machines with similar hardware. Whereas Grid and Cloud are geographically distributed and loosely coupled.

Grid:

               Grid is a group of computers owned by different parties and connect together where the user share a combined power of resources. It’s geographically distributed. LAN and WAN both networks are used in grid.

Cloud:

               Cloud is a collection of computers it is usually owned by a single party. Cloud workable on internet (WAN) only.

Feature

Cluster

Grid

Cloud

Ownership

Single

Multiple

Single/Multiple

Bounding

Tightly

Loosely

Must be loosely

OPEX

Maximum

Minimum

Very Small

CAPEX

Yes

Yes(small)

No

Redundancy

Partial

Average

Full

High Availability

No

Yes

High Scale

Data

NAS(Network Access Storage)

SAN (Storage Area Network)

NAS & SAN

Network

Low Latency

High Latency

Redundant

Network Model

LAN

WAN

Global

Down Time

High in case of failure

Minimum

No (Vendor End)

Throughput

Minimum

High

Very High

Bandwidth

Low, High

High, Low

High, High

Security

Secured

Denial of services (attack)

Distributed Denial of services

How Cloud could be used?

               Cloud can be used as a server & remote desktop. Cloud have both properties that it could be public or private, in some cases merger of public and private cloud used known as Hybrid Cloud.

Public Cloud

               Public clouds typically deliver a pay as you go model. Where you pay as how much you used. Along with the public cloud services shared the same hardware, storage, and network devices as the other users are. In public cloud you are able to manage some basic setting only you don’t have fully control.

Private Cloud

               Private cloud is a dedicated hardware, storage, and network for a single client or company. Private cloud has number of benefits then public cloud.

  • Because of dedicated hardware, data storage and network the security is automatically increased. And it cannot be accessed by the other clients in the same data center.
  • In Private cloud hardware performance, network performance and storage performance can be specified and customized.
  • Client has full control on private cloud.

Hybrid Cloud

               Hybrid cloud is a merger of both Public and Private cloud and used their Properties as a service.

Elasticity and Scalability in Cloud Computing:

Elasticity and scalability are not quite same when we see it in cloud computing.

Elasticity

Elasticity in cloud infrastructure involves enabling the hypervisor to create virtual machines or containers with resources to meet the real time demand.

Scalability

Scalability often is discussed at the application layer, highlighting capability of a system, network or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth.

Load Balancing in Cloud Computing:  

Cloud load balancing is a process to distribute the work load on the resources in a cloud computing environment. Divide the traffic and work load on the resources by automatically expanding or on demand.

Conventional Computing VS Cloud Computing

Conventional

Cloud

Manual Provisioned

Self-Provisioned

Dedicated Hardware

Shared Hardware

Fixed Capacity

Elastic Capacity

Pay for Capacity

Pay for Use

Capital & Operational Expenses

Operational Expenses

Cloud’s Key Attribute

  • Shared / Pooled resources
  • Broad Network Access
  • On-demand self service
  • Scalable and Elastic
  • Metered by Use

Shared / Pooled Resources

  • Resources are drawn from a common pool
  • Common resources build economies of scale
  • Common infrastructure run at high efficiency

Broad Network Access

  • Open standards and APIs
  • Almost Always IP, HTTP and Rest
  • Available from anywhere with internet connection

On-Demand Self-Service

  • Completely automated
  • User abstracted from the implementation
  • Near real time delivery (seconds or minutes)
  • Services accessed through a self-serve web interface

Scalable and Elastic

  • Resources dynamically-allocated between users
  • Additional resources dynamically released when needed
  • Fully automated

Metered By Use

  • Services are metered, like a utility
  • User pay only for services used
  • Services can be cancelled at any time

What are the concerns of Cloud Computing while getting into?

  • OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project)

OWASP is an organization which provides unbiased, practical, and cost effective info about computer and Internet Application.

  • BWA (Broken Web Application/ Services)
    • Image or Thumbnail are not loading
    • Live updates delay or not running
    • DNS (Domain Name Server) error
  • Where is the data?

Data and Data flow framework.

  • Compliance
    • Resources
    • Hardware (Storage)
    • Replica (Redundant Sites)
  • What If?
    • Company stop providing services
    • IT Manager is fired
  • Admin Portal
    • C-Panel
  • Shadow or Stealth IT
    • Get some services from provider by hiding the reality and distribute the services on your end.
  • Bugs
    • Bugs Fixing
  • Ease
    • Easy for end user as well as hacker
  • Security Benefits
    • Absorb (attack prevention)
    • Virtual Structure
  • 3rd Party Cloud Services for Security
    • Inclusion Detection System (IDS)
    • Web Application Firewall (WAF)
  • HR (Human Resources)
    • IT Management
    • RBAC (Role Based Access Control)
      • Roles are divided on the base of rights
    • DR (Disaster Recovery)
      • Replica Site on Cloud
      • VPN (virtual Private Network)

For creating VPN three main features are required.

  • Authentication
  • Dedicated Link
  • Dedicated Storage

Everyone needs to ensure that all concern before getting into the Cloud Computing.

SLA and SLO for Cloud Computing

               SLA (Service Level Agreement) is a contract, agreement and negotiation between cloud user and cloud provider.

SLO (Service Level Objective)

  • Predicator
  • Condition of evolution
  • Metrics

SLA Life Cycle:

  • Discover Services Provider
    • Who, Where, When, What, How?
  • Define SLA
    • Template International CA
  • Establish Agreement
  • Monitor SLA violation
  • Terminate SLA
    • Validity
  • Enforce Penalties

Let’s Discuss about IT infrastructure and Algorithms of cloud we generally used.

IT Infrastructure:

  • Hardware Platform
  • Operating System Platform
  • Enterprise app Application
  • Data Management and storage
  • Network Platform
  • Internet Platform
  • Consulting Integration Services

Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA)

Dynamic

Demand Base

Basic Requirement

Runtime

Manually

Manually Or Automatically (using automation Algorithm )

Priority Based (FCFS)

 

Adoptive Algorithm (IC)

 

Preemptive Algorithms (to decrease waiting time and increasing efficiency)

 

 

Genetic Algorithm

               Set of genes that produce all basic part in all animals (general definition).

For system: Set of resources, where each set can fulfill all needs of Operating System.

Group Algorithm

  • Cluster
  • Skewness Equation

Dynamic resource Management using Skewness Equation here is the equation right below.

Skewness(i) = 

  • i Represent System
  • r Total Resources
  • rj Used Resources
  • 1 is Allocated resource to hypervisor

Skewness Equation used to measure free resources, allocated and used resources.

Partitioning Scheme

Logical Partition

Physical Partition

Division of computer processor memory and storage into different set of resources.

o   Boundaries

o   Slices (etc)

So that each set of resources can be operated independently with its own OS instance Application.

Slicing or creating more region on hard drive (Computer partitions C: /, D: /, E: /)

      So that OS can manage the info of each region.

                                         

Next Generation Network (NGN)

               Next Generation Network are packet based Network and used for all services.

E.g. Telecom Integration with variety of broadband.

In this research work we had discuss briefly about cloud computing its services, infra-structure, differences it’s all about new trends and technology according to needs and requirements. Some of the giant companies which provide cloud services

  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Citrix
  • Joyent
  • Century Link
  • Sales Force
  • Amazon

If you want to Explore more you should visit some of them and see how they work and if you are using a cloud service you can share your story with us we are all ears.

Eisha.Mehtab

Author: Eisha.Mehtab

Eisha Mehtab is currently in college completing her A levels, holds an avid interest in psychology & philosophy and lives by the motto to "do a little bit of everything."